Varieties of Capitalism classification is not applicable to Asia

“Asian business systems: institutional comparison, clusters and implications for varieties of capitalism and business systems theory” (open access paper) presents an institutional comparison of 13 major Asian business systems—China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam—with one another and five major Western economies—France, Germany, Sweden, the UK and the USA. Michael A. Witt and Gordon Redding (INSEAD) find five major types of business systems in Asia: (post-)socialist, advanced city, emerging Southeast Asian, advanced Northeast Asian and Japanese. With the exception of Japan, all Asian forms of capitalism are fundamentally distinct from Western types of capitalism. They conclude that the Varieties of Capitalism (VOC) dichotomy is not applicable to Asia; none of the existing major frameworks capture all Asian types of capitalism; and Asian business systems (except Japan) cannot be understood through categories identified in the West.

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